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Wednesday, 6 June 2018

消費者行動分析 Marketing


消費者行動分析
                                    
M16061 バタライ・ルドラ・プラサド
消費者行動に関する代表的なモデル。S-Rモデルとは、消費者の行動を刺激(stimulus)とそれに対する反応(response)に還元して把握する考え方であり、S-O-Rモデルとは、従来のS-Rモデルにおいて触れられないままとなっていた消費者の生活体(organism)をこれに含めた考え方である。S-O-Rモデルの代表的な事例としては、ハワード=シェス・モデルがある。消費者は、実際の製品(実体的刺激)、広告(象徴的刺激)、口コミ(社会的刺激)などの刺激を知覚し、場合によっては自分からこうした刺激を探索しながら、製品に対して良い悪い、快不快といった特定の態度を形成する。
 ハワード=シェスモデルは、消費者行動、とくに選択行動を包括的に扱った代表的な研究であり、そのモデルの基本思想は、刺激-反応パラダイムに基づいている。モデル全体の構成は、インプット(刺激)変数、仮説構成体、学習構成体、アウトプット変数、外生変数から成立している。インプット変数は、製品やブランドの特性を表す商業的情報刺激と家族や集団のメンバーからの社会的情報刺激に分けられる。仮説構成体は、情報探索、情報への感応性、知覚偏向から構成され、購買決定のための情報処理機能を果たしている。一方、学習構成体は、動機、先有傾向、意思決定仲介変数、喚起セット、抑制要因、満足から構成され、意思決定機能を果たしている。アウトプット変数は、刺激に対する反応(購買行動)に至るまでの仲介変数から構成される。
S-Rモデルで考えたなら、どの製品にも多くの広告投入(s)があるにもかかわらず売上(R)が上がらないという同様の説明しかできないが、ハワードシェスモデルなどのS-O-Rモデルを用いれば、次のように説明することができる。すなわち、社の新製品は製品コンセプトが明快でブランド理解までは反応過程を進めることができたが、広告に起用したタレントとターゲットの相性が悪く、好意的な態度を形成させるところまではいかなかった。一方、Y社の新製品は、製品にセールス2つあったため、製品コンセプトを絞り込めず、名前連呼型のに終始したため、ブランド理解までさえ進めることができなかた。したがって、X社については、消費者好意的態度を形成せることによって、またY社については、まずブランド理解をせることによって反応段階を進めるべきことが、戦略的示唆とて出てくる。
このように、刺激に対する消費者の反応段階を包括的モデルのなかに示したS-O-RS-Rモデル研究は、企業にとっては、自社の製品の市場への浸透度合いを把握することを、また消費者を購買行動へと向かわせるための戦略ポイントを理解することを可能にさせるものであり今日なお非常に実用的な分析法である。消費者の内面における反応家庭を説明しており、このモデルを用いることによって、企業側としては現状のマーケティング活動の問題点や課題を浮き彫りにすることができる。


Wednesday, 30 May 2018

Bitcoin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Bitcoin () is a cryptocurrency and worldwide payment system.[7]:3 It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator.[7]:1[8] The system was designed to work as a peer-to-peer network, a network in which transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary.[7]:4,5 These transactions are verified by network nodes through the use of cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto[9] and released as open-source software in 2009.[10]
Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies,[11] products, and services. As of February 2015, over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepted bitcoin as payment.[12] Research produced by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin.[13

Thursday, 30 March 2017

Samsung Galaxy S8: release date and everything you need to know

Source http://www.techradar.com/news/samsung-galaxy-s8-release-date-and-everything-you-need-to-know

Update: Read our hands on Samsung Galaxy S8 review, check our deals page for best S8 pre-order offers and watch our S8 vs S8 Plus video.

The Samsung Galaxy S8 has finally been launched and… well, it's entirely as we expected thanks to the myriad leaks that sprung up all over the internet in the preceding months.
But the good news is that it's a rather nifty phone, and you can check it out in some rather sumptuous depth in our hands-on: Samsung Galaxy S8 review to get all the morsels of information you could want on Samsung's new flagship. 
We know that some of you are in more of a rush though, and just want to know what's new and whether you should care about the new Samsung phone – and no, before you ask (and we have been asked countless times): it's not going to catch fire this time. Samsung has been very clear about that. 
What it will do is impress you with the large display, faster innards and all-round improvements throughout the user interface – so if you're not going to check out our thorough and filled-with-beautiful-photos Samsung Galaxy S8 hands-on (the plugs will only get more shameless) we've rounded up all the salient information here.

Wednesday, 21 October 2015

Everything you need to know about Google Glass





Google Glass, Google's first entry into the wearable tech market, is back in the news this week after a Glass user reported being assaulted for wearing her device in public. It's been well over a year since Google first announced the smart headset in the summer of 2012 at its developers' conference. But it's clear that people still aren't all that comfortable with it. So, for those who need a review, or just want to catch up on the latest news about Glass, here's a quick refresher.

What's Google Glass?

Google Glass is a headset that you wear like a pair of eyeglasses -- Google has even announced that it's popping prescription lenses into some models. The headset has a small prism-like screen tucked into the upper corner of the frame that keeps you constantly plugged in to your e-mail, calls and other notifications so you don't have to miss a beat.

That sounds ridiculous. Why would people want a computer on their face?

Yeah, it does sound like a recipe for making tech-zombies. But the idea behind Glass is that bringing the technology closer will actually make it easier to disengage from it. Rather than having your head bent over a screen in your hand, you can look up. And rather than flicking through a list of notifications or e-mails to see if you missed anything important, you can make that decision immediately and get on with your day.

Not that you can abandon your phone altogether. Glass is designed to provide a second screen for your device, so you need to hook it up to your phone to get the notifications and other information.

I kind of get that. But what's it like to wear?

It's a little hard to describe, but it's basically like wearing a heavier pair of glasses with a small screen that hangs just out of your direct line of vision.

The idea is to have hat little notification bar from your phone in a place where you don't have to strain to see it, so you can actually look where you're going while you're out and about -- and stay plugged in to your inbox.

There are different ways to operate Glass. The device has a touchpad on the side -- the part that goes over your ear -- that you can tap or swipe for navigation. You can use voice commands for Glass by adding the phrase "Okay, Glass" to the start of whatever you tell it to do -- launch an app, take a picture, start a call, etc. Users can also wake up Glass by looking up.

What would you use it for? Glass has its own store where developers can publish apps that take advantage of the device's unique design. These tend to offer quick bursts of information and seem most useful when you're doing something that requires your hands, such as cooking. You can get step-by-step instructions for a recipe from Glass, for instance, rather than soiling your cookbook with hands that are coated in sticky dough.

Okay, that sounds like it could be cool. How do I buy one?

You can't. Google Glass isn't commercially available.

But I've seen people walking around with them. How did those people get them?

Those people are participating in Google's beta program, which the company calls "Glass Explorers." You have to apply to become one of those explorers, and it comes at a steep price: $1,500. That's expensive, but remember that the devices out now are prototypes, aimed at developers and others who may have cool ideas about how to use the technology in the future.

The number of explorers has grown over the past year, though. It does appear that Google is setting the stage for a full commercial rollout this year. So, if you want one, you probably won't have to wait too long.

It's creepy to have someone walking around with a camera on their face all the time. How can I tell if they're recording me?

The lens lights up when Glass is in use, so others can tell when someone wearing Glass is looking at something, taking a picture or recording a video. To start recording, you have to tap the control panel or say "Okay, Glass. Record a video." But if you pass by someone who is recording, or if you're not looking too closely at the wearer's face, it is a tricky thing to figure out.

People aren't that happy about the privacy implications. Sure, you can already record video any time with smartphones and camcorders -- remember those? -- but strangers can more easily tell when someone is recording with those devices. When the device is embedded in users' accessories, it makes it a bit harder to tell when someone is filming.

To meet such concerns head-on, Google's been embarking on a major education campaign. The company has been training its beta-testers in practicing good etiquette with Glass and is letting lawmakers and the general public try out the glasses before they start showing up in stores. There's also been a focus on educating policymakers about how the technology works. Google has taken Glass to the Hill and gone on the road to show "Cities Through Glass" to local and state lawmakers. The company has also told members of Congress that it will place certain limits on the device, such as vowing not to add facial recognition technology to Glass. And Google has been aggressive about publishing videos about the cool and interesting stuff its explorers are doing with Glass so far.

Cool and interesting, you say? Show me that -- I need to hear some upsides.

People have come up with super-interesting ways to use Glass, for fun and more serious purposes. For every instance where Google Glass shows up in a high-fashion runway show  or a marriage proposal, there's also someone looking at how it can be used to fight fires or help people with disabilities.

Still, there's no school like the old school. Here's the premiere demo of Google Glass, featuring Google co-founder Sergey Brin skydiving while wearing the device. Having Brin demonstrate the device while moving at terminal velocity seems toflout Google's recommendation not to wear Glass during "high-impact" sports -- but the video is still pretty cool.

What other concerns have been raised about Glass?

How much time do you have? Google has had to field plenty of questions and criticism from lawmakers. These include questions about whether people should be able to use Glass while they're behind the wheel and disputes about wearing Glass in situations where recording would normally be banned, such as in a movie theater. It's a bit of a tricky question because Glass has so many potential uses but users aren't necessarily taking advantage of them all the time. For example, an Ohio man wore Glass with prescription lenses to the movies and was pulled out of the theater because the thing that allowed him to see in focus was also capable of recording an illegal copy of the film. Those are the sort of delicate situations Google and Glass users will have to navigate as more people use the device.

How should I react if I see someone wearing Glass?

Well, rein in any impulse to assault, for one. Google Glass explorers get training and steady reminders from Google that they're ambassadors of a new product all the time. So, they're supposed  to be ready to handle questions and  the extra attention they get when wearing the device. If you're uncomfortable with the fact that they're wearing Glass around you, you can always ask politely whether they'd be willing to tuck it away for a little while. But, just as you'd expect Glass users to be courteous to you, be courteous to them -- etiquette goes both ways.

Hayley Tsukayama covers consumer technology for The Washington Post
From washingtonpost.com